Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Propositions, philosophy: propositions are defined as the meanings of sentences, whereby a sentence is interpreted as a character string, which must still be interpreted in relation to a situation or a speaker. E.g. “I am hungry” has a different meaning from the mouth of each new speaker. On the other hand, the sentence “I am hungry” from the mouth of the speaker, who first expressed the German sentence, has the same meaning as the German sentence uttered by him. See also meaning, propositional attitudes, identity conditions, opacity, utterances, sentences.
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Stalnaker I 34
Contradiction/Adams/Stalnaker: contradiction could be defined in terms of consistency:
A and B are contradictory, iff.
{A, B} is not consistent
And for each consistent set of propositions Γ is either
Γ U {A} or Γ U {B} is consistent.
The theory presupposes:
(W3) Each proposition has a contradiction.
Proposition/Adams/Stalnaker: this is a minimal theory of propositions. It does not impose any structure on propositions, except for what is needed for compatibility, implication, and equivalence. And to ensure that e.g. the right kind of implication is represent. E.g. implication:
Definition Implication/Proposition/Stalnaker: (here): A implies B iff. a set consisting of A and a contradiction of B is not consistent.
(W1) and (W2) ensure that our implication has the right properties.

Sta I
R. Stalnaker
Ways a World may be Oxford New York 2003

> Counter arguments against Adams
> Counter arguments in relation to Propositions

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-26