|Twin earth: is an expression from a thought experiment by H. Putnam (H. Putnam, The meaning of ‘meaning’, In Philosophical Papers, Vol. 2 Mind, Language and Reality, Cambridge, 1985). It is assumed that there is a second earth, which resembles our own in every detail, except for the composition of the substance water. However, the twin earth-water has phenomenologically the same properties as our water and is also called water there. The example should show that we cannot determine the reference of expressions independently of the environment. See also reference, externalism, internalism, anti-individualism._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Twin Earth/PoundstoneVsPutnam: long molecular chains correspond with sticky liquids - then no confusability - the water would be undrinkable - thought experiments: physical feasibility is relevant - Twin Earth/Poundstone: only possible connection: hydrogen/oxygen (peroxide): extremely unstable. when ammonia is liquid, mercury is fixed - completely different world - (s) H2O/XYZ cannot be the only change then - (s) Poundstone argues holistically - Putnam: _ identical experiences - but more than a reality that fits to it.
Translation/Twin Earth/PoundstoneVsPutnam: Variant: supposing there is a text of "Schiller", "The Maid of Orleans" - but translation would result into Urfaust - then slogan: "meanings are not in the book" - Vs: such a translation would not be possible because the word frequencies would have to give the same pattern in each translation - solution: algorithm which completely modifies the text - N.B.: there is no evidence that the Voynich manuscript is not a translation of a known text._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
I W. Poundstone Im Labyrinth des Denkens, Reinbek 1995