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Chisholm: Direct Attribution/Direct Ascription: self-ascription, only security, basis of any reference - indirect attribution: to someone or something else.
Chisholm: direct attribution: instead of self-attribution (exception E.g. Mach) - P1 self-identity from direct attribution - P2 what is being attributed is a property - D1 Meaning: direct attribution - indirect attribution: to someone else, derived from direct attribution. - basic concept: the property of being-F so that x attributes it directly to y - ((s) from this should follow: x = y).
Any kind of reference can be understood with the help of self-ascription - 1) The meaning person must be able to turn themselves into an object, 2) He must understand propositions and facts - direct attribution (self-attribution) original form of all attributions.
But not yet self-awareness: this also requires the knowledge that it is the subject itself to which the properties are attributed.
Indirect Attribution/Chisholm: about identifying relations: there is a certain Rel R which is so that you are the thing to which I stand in R - (irreversible) - in that, I directly attribute a specific two-sided property to myself: that the thing to which I stand in R, is a thing that is F (E.g. wears a hat) - but this second part does not need to be right
Confusion/Forgery/Chisholm: attributes properties to one of which it is thought that they belong to the other.
Die erste Person Frankfurt 1992
Roderick M. Chisholm
Erkenntnistheorie Graz 2004