|Knowledge: Knowledge is a conscious relationship to sentences or propositions, which legitimately attributes to them truth or falsehood. What is known is true. Conversely, it does not apply that everything that is true is also known. See also knowledge how, propositional knowledge, realism, abilities, competence, truth, facts, situations, language, certainty, beliefs, omniscience, logical knowledge, reliability_____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Knowledge / Lewis / Stalnaker: Conclusion: Knowledge of actual things is determined, not because it is causal knowledge, but because it is indexical knowledge. That is not knowledge of the existence, but of the fact that we are in a certain relation to things - punch line: therefore all impersonal ontological beliefs is justified by a priori reasons. This will not be accepted by many authors.
Fact / unknown / knowledge / truth value / Stalnaker: E.g. "Julius was the inventor of the zipper." - Establishes an unknown fact. - We know by virtue of our designation, that it is true, although we do not know the fact. - (Because we do not know who is Julius). - Reference of names: depends on facts._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Ways a World may be Oxford New York 2003