|Essence, philosophy: the essence of an object is understood to mean one or more properties without which the object is inconceivable. Critics argue that such necessary properties can only be attributed to concepts, but not to empirical objects. See also features, essentialism, ultimate justification, properties, metaphysics, concepts, necessity de re, substance._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Essence/Nature/Dennett: Nothing that is so complicated that it is interesting can have an essence. (s) Reason: if it consists of several parts, it can only have developed gradually, while discarding useless parts. Therefore, it was not essential at any time. Of course, not even at the present time.
DennettVsEssentialism: E.g. has the vending machine dissolved into nothingness. Similarly: E.g. Frog: would have tried to catch food pellets in the wild just the same if they had crossed his path.
Disjunction: in some ways "fly or pellets" is a natural type of frogs. They do not naturally make a distinction between the two of them.
On the other hand, disjunction is not a natural type: it does not occur in nature._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, New York 1995
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997
Kinds of Minds, New York 1996
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999
"COG: Steps towards consciousness in robots"
Bewusstein, Thomas Metzinger, Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1996
"Animal Consciousness. What Matters and Why?", in: D. C. Dennett, Brainchildren. Essays on Designing Minds, Cambridge/MA 1998, pp. 337-350
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild, Frankfurt/M. 2005