|Verification, philosophy: verification means determining the truth value ("true" or "false") of statements that refer to the observable. The admissible means of verification are determined by the theories, the statements belong to. See also verificationism, confirmation, certainty, empiricism, foundation, proof, manifestation, understanding, generalization._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Verification/Natural laws/Hempel: a general statement is checked by examining their singular consequences. - Problem: each general statement specifies an infinite class of singular statements - therefore there is never a final verification. - Conversely, no general law is derived formally from a finite set of singular statements.
Bubner I 125
Confirmation/Hempel/Science Theory/Bubner: Relationship of logical inclusion of sentences. This avoids a crucial problem of induction.
Both hypothetically valid laws or general statements as well as individual statements from observation are subject of logical consideration as sentences.
Formal rules of derivation
Rehabilitation of deduction.
With P. Oppenheim: D N Model: deductive nomological explanation: scientific explanation as a logical operation with sentences, subsumption of sentences under sentences. The explanandum is subsumed under Explanas (explanation reasons). The Explanas disintegrates into antecedents conditions (C1, C2,... Ck) which describe an event and general law statements (L1, L2,... Lr)
C1, C2,... Ck
L1, L2,... Lr
E (Description of the phenomenon)
The laws are therefore subject to the premises. (Only significant innovation VsAristotle).
GoodmanVsHempel: law-like statements instead of laws!
Induction: the "new mystery of induction" does not concern the confirmation but the original creation of hypotheses._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
I Hempel Zur Wahrheitstheorie des logischen Positivismus aus Wahrheitsheorien Hrsg. Skirbekk Frankfurt/M 1996
II Hempel Probleme und Modifikationen des empiristischen Sinnkriteriums aus Sinnreich (Hg) Philosophie der idealen Sprache, München 1982
II (b) Hempel Der Begriff der kognitiven Signifikanz: eine erneute Betrachtung (1951) aus Sinnreich (Hg) Philosophie der idealen Sprache, München 1982
Antike Themen und ihre moderne Verwandlung Frankfurt 1992