|Causes: whether something is a physical cause of something depends on the separation of two objects or processes that are to be identified as cause and effect, as well as the transmission of energy. Whether this relationship comes about is therefore contingent. From a linguistic point of view, the relationship between cause and effect is a necessary relation since the concept of the cause is applied only to something which has an effect. See also de re, de dicto, necessity, contingency, causality, effect._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Causes/Dennett: E.g. two black boxes (causality): some authors: truth and falsity are semantic properties and as such completely abstract, so that they cannot create anything! - Here is the example:
E.g. 2 Black Boxes/Dennett: If you press the button "a" on box A, a red light goes on on box B. If you press button "b", a green light goes on. Apparently, the amber light never goes on. Inside box B there is a super computer. You will find that each step formed a clear causal chain without any secrets.
What is puzzling, however, is that the computer always gives the same result, but does not pass through the same sequence of intermediate steps. The box checks the beliefs of the other one. If they are the same: red, if not, green. Incomprehensible (e.g. manipulated message): amber.
Declaration of the designers: It is an "expert system with trivial information" ("world experience").
The builders of the boxes insist, however, that there is no prospect to explore the causal rules with which the whole story started without using semantic concepts (or related to the mind)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, New York 1995
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997
Kinds of Minds, New York 1996
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999
"COG: Steps towards consciousness in robots"
Bewusstein, Thomas Metzinger, Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1996
"Animal Consciousness. What Matters and Why?", in: D. C. Dennett, Brainchildren. Essays on Designing Minds, Cambridge/MA 1998, pp. 337-350
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild, Frankfurt/M. 2005