Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

 
Universal generalization, logic: under the condition that an arbitrarily chosen object x has a certain property F, one can conclude that every object has the property F. Logical form I-a > b -> I-a > (a)b. Explanation If a formula a states something about an individual a (which can be x, y ...), and b follows from a, then b is also valid for all individuals mentioned in a by a. (See Hughes/Cresswell, 1978, p. 121). The universal generalization allows to introduce a universal quantifier. See also universal instantiation, existential generalization.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
Author Item Excerpt Meta data

 
Books on Amazon
V 232
Probability/explanation/Peter Railton/Lewis: deductive-nomological model of probabilistic explanation. - One must distinguish it from Fetzer's model: for both are: covering law/Railton/Fetzer: universal generalization about individual probabilities. - FetzerVsRailton: as in Hempel: inductive, not deductive - Explanation: as argument. LewisVsFetzer: however: a good explanation is not necessary a good argument. LewisVsFetzer/LewisVsRailton: both want an explanation, even if the event is extremely unlikely, but in this case a good explanation is a very bad argument. - probability/explanation/Hempel: deviates from his deductive-nomological model.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

LW I
D. Lewis
Die Identität von Körper und Geist Frankfurt 1989

LW II
D. Lewis
Konventionen Berlin 1975

LW IV
D. Lewis
Philosophical Papers Bd I New York Oxford 1983

LW V
D. Lewis
Philosophical Papers Bd II New York Oxford 1986

LwCl I
Cl. I. Lewis
Mind and the World Order: Outline of a Theory of Knowledge (Dover Books on Western Philosophy) 1991


> Counter arguments against Lewis

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-09-23