|Universals: universals are expressions for what objects may have in common, e.g. a certain color. Examples for universals are redness, roundness, difference, value. The ontological status of universals as something independent of thought - that is, their existence - is controversial. Nevertheless it is undisputed that we form terms for generalization and successfully use them. See also general terms, general, generalization, ontology, existence, conceptual realism, realism, ideas, participation, sortals, conceptualism, nominalism._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.|
Books on Amazon
|Ad I 42
Universals/(s): can apply gradually - facts: cannot apply gradually. Facts are mutually exclusive, universals are not.
Exemplification: Ability to be at different places at the same time - applies to universals.
Non-predicative universals/Meixner: non-predicative: no property, no function: type objects/TO: objects! The letter that "looks like A", the logo of the Federal Railroad Company, the Lion, the High C, the book Anna Karenina (not the figure), homo sapiens, carmine red (not crimson) - type objects are differently perceived mentally than predicative universals: differences between individual specimens do not stand out - this does not apply to the corresponding properties.
Universals Problem: narrow sense: Question whether some entities are abstract - not identical with the question of whether or not some entities are properties, relations, types or not?
Def Normal Universal/NU/Meixner: is a finite-digit predicative universal. The results of a complete saturation of NU with entities are facts - conversely: the results of the extraction of these entities from these facts are those normal universals - just like we differentiate facts as gross we also differentiate normal universals as gross - coarse: e.g. the property of being an equiangular triangle is identical to the property of being a equilateral triangle - normal universals are identical if they have the same number of digits and can be saturated by the same entities.
Universal Name: means the property._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Einführung in die Ontologie Darmstadt 2004