|Elm/Beech example, philosophy: thought experiment of H. Putnam (Putnam, H. Reason, truth and history, Cambridge, 2008). The speaker cannot distinguish elms and beeches, but he knows that both are different trees. What is the status of his knowledge? Putnam draws the conclusion that meanings are not in the head. See also reference, knowledge, causal theory, meaning, thought experiments.|
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Elm/beech/Putnam: reference without distinction - Reference: socially, not private - "elm" refers in my language to the same as with any other: to elms! Term not the same as reference - I just made no difference in the concept of a beech.
Elm/beech/Putnam: mental representations are floating descriptions, no meanings - mental representation does not specify the reference -> twin earth - no synonymity: French and German have different representations: Baum/arbre - representations have no intrinsic relation.
Von einem Realistischen Standpunkt Frankfurt 1993
Repräsentation und Realität Frankfurt 1999
Für eine Erneuerung der Philosophie Stuttgart 1997
Pragmatismus Eine offene Frage Frankfurt 1995
Vernunft, Wahrheit und Geschichte Frankfurt 1990