## Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments | |||

Type theory: The type theory is a restriction of formal systems to a kind of reference which prevents symbols of a level (of a type) from referring to symbols of the same level (the same type). This is intended to avoid paradoxes arising from a self-reference of the signs or expressions used. Original proposals for type theories are given by B. Russell (B. Russell, “Mathematical logic as based on the theory of types”, in American Journal of Mathematics, 30, 1908, pp. 222-262). See also self-reference, circularity, paradoxes, Russell's Paradox, branched type theory._____________ Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. | |||

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Books on Amazon |
I 81f E.g. a, b are bodies, the sentences " a is quadrangular", "b is red is true or false, in any case sensefull. Furthermore, the sentences "square is a spatial property" and "red is a color" be true." - In contrast, the series of words "a is a spatial property", " quadrangular is red", "color is a spatial property " should be neither true, nor false but meaningless, mere pseudo-propositions. ((s) So do not: "a is a feature".) Such pseudo-propositions can be avoided if a term (property) of n-th level is based only to such of (n-1) th stage. It follows that the assumption that if a certain property is applied to itself , it can be neither true nor false, but always is pointless. _____________ Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. |
Ca I R. Carnap Die alte und die neue Logik InWahrheitstheorien, G. Skirbekk (Hg), Frankfurt 1996 Ca III R. Carnap Philosophie als logische Syntax InPhilosophie im 20.Jahrhundert, Bd II, A. Hügli/P.Lübcke (Hg), Reinbek 1993 Ca IV R. Carnap Mein Weg in die Philosophie Stuttgart 1992 Ca VI R. Carnap Der Logische Aufbau der Welt Hamburg 1998 CA VII = PiS R. Carnap Sinn und Synonymität in natürlichen Sprachen InZur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg), München 1982 Ca VIII (= PiS) R. Carnap Über einige Begriffe der Pragmatik InZur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg), München 1982 |

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-07-23