|Theories: theories are statement systems for the explanation of observations, e.g. of behavior or physical, chemical or biological processes. When setting up theories, a subject domain, a vocabulary of the terms to be used and admissible methods of observation are defined. In addition to explanations, the goal of the theory formation is the predictability and comparability of observations. See also systems, models, experiments, observation, observation language, theoretical terms, theoretical entities, predictions, analogies, comparisons, evidence, verification, reduction, definitions, definability._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Crispin Wright on Theories - Dictionary of Arguments
The purpose of the idea of theoreticity of observation should not be to question the contrast between data and theory. (Wright6)
Theoreticity of observation/theory/Wright:
4. the type if theory ladenness that it needs to bring the distinction data/theory in trouble is a lot more (see above):
It must be shown that the conditions for legitimate assertion (assertibility) is necessarily a function not only of the content of the report and the quality of the input experience, but also a function of collateral empirical beliefs.
WrightVsTheoreticity of observation/theory ladenness: if all observation is theory-laden, there are no statements, to which any subject is obliged to agree to. (So no "synthetic" statements in the sense of Two Dogmas, final section).
Wright: the legitimate assertibility is rather a four-digit relation between:
Statement - subject - experience development - background assumptions.
Evidence: Whether a theory is erroneous or properly, must now (see above) be visible in principle at least. However, such confirmation may ultimately only be provided with independent credible data. (VsTheory-ladenness of observation).
The Example can show the possibility that this remains undecidable._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Truth and Objectivity, Cambridge 1992
Wahrheit und Objektivität Frankfurt 2001
"Language-Mastery and Sorites Paradox"
Truth and Meaning, G. Evans/J. McDowell, Oxford 1976
Georg Henrik von Wright
Explanation and Understanding, New York 1971
Erklären und Verstehen Hamburg 2008