|Theories: theories are statement systems for the explanation of observations, e.g. of behavior or physical, chemical or biological processes. When setting up theories, a subject domain, a vocabulary of the terms to be used and admissible methods of observation are defined. In addition to explanations, the goal of the theory formation is the predictability and comparability of observations. See also systems, models, experiments, observation, observation language, theoretical terms, theoretical entities, predictions, analogies, comparisons, evidence, verification, reduction, definitions, definability._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Theory/SellarsVsQuine: the database itself is part of the theory. Sensory impressions or sense stimulations are we Sellars quasi-theoretical entities of an everyday theory of perception.
Theory/language: the language of the scientific world view must preserve the basic structures of the everyday world view. For example, colors are homogeneous properties. (But not according to the scientific image).
So Sellars later creates the concept of Sensa, which only occurs in sentient organisms. Where the ordinary human perceives something blue, on the side of science occurs the sensum. Sensa themselves are not colored, just as the states of feeling are. Colored alone are the objects of the everyday world. Also not the physical objects. Otherwise one would have to isolate a colored surface and ask for its thickness, which leads to contradictions.
Reification of the methodological distinction between theoretical and non-theoretical discourse, incorrect substantive distinction between theoretical and non-theoretical existence.
Theory/tradition: thesis a theory explains laws by deriving theoretical correlations of these laws from a small amount of postulates about hidden entities. - SellarsVsTradition: the assumptions of a theory are not formed by an uninterpreted calculus, but by a model. - ((S) uninterpreted: because supported by unobservable.) - Definition Model/Sellars: the description of a range of known objects that behave in the usual way. - A model gets a comment. - This restricts analogies. - Sellars: continuous transition to the everyday world.
SellarsVs logistical picture of forming theories: most explanations did not arise from the head of the theorists as a finished product. Between science and everyday life, there is a continuous transition. The distinction between theory language and observation language belongs to the logic of the terms of inner episodes.
The entities imported from the theory are states of the perceiving subject, not a class of individual objects._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
The Myth of the Given: Three Lectures on the Philosophy of Mind, University of London 1956 in: H. Feigl/M. Scriven (eds.) Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 1956
Der Empirismus und die Philosophie des Geistes Paderborn 1999
Science, Perception, and Reality, London 1963
Wahrheitstheorien, Gunnar Skirbekk, Frankfurt/M. 1977