|Theories: theories are statement systems for the explanation of observations, e.g. of behavior or physical, chemical or biological processes. When setting up theories, a subject domain, a vocabulary of the terms to be used and admissible methods of observation are defined. In addition to explanations, the goal of the theory formation is the predictability and comparability of observations. See also systems, models, experiments, observation, observation language, theoretical terms, theoretical entities, predictions, analogies, comparisons, evidence, verification, reduction, definitions, definability._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Inegalitarian Theory /ig. Th./Nozick: an inegalitarian theory assumes that a state is privileged as a "natural". - This needs no explanation and also does not allow one. - Other situations are then differences that need to be explained. - E.g. For Newton rest or uniformity of movement was the natural state. - For Aristotle: rest. - inegalitarian theory does not answer, 1. Why this state is the natural. - 2. Why exactly these forces are making a difference. - To accept something as a natural state is also to ascribe a specific content to him.
R. Harris: the thesis that something remains the same, does not need to be explained. - NozickVs: but we have to explain why a thing for the purposes of this principle counts as the same and not in other contexts. - Existence: the question concerning it, is typical inegalitary. - Punchline: here we presuppose the nothing as their natural state.
1. We do not know what the natural state is - 2. We do not know whether there is a fundamental natural state at all. That means whether the correct fundamental theory is inegalitary. - Each inegalitarian theory leaves a bare fact as inexplicable back, a "natural state".
Egalitarian Theory/Nozick: needs to see much more possible states as in need of explanation. - But it asks no longer the question "Why X instead of Y?" - But always "Why X?".
Egalitarian Theory/existence/nothing/Nozick: "principle of indifference" (from probability theory). - For them, there are many ways, how things could be, but only one possibility how nothing exists. - Punchline: then is the chance that something exists much greater than that nothing exists. - Vs: one has to make an appropriate division into states that are to be treated as equally likely. - Many ways how things exists can be summarized as one. - Extreme case: only two ways: something exists or does not exist.
Under the worst assumption if we assume a division, there is a 50%-chance that something exists. - Because all other divisions have to be at least three partitions then, the chance that something exists rises for the next alternative already to two-thirds. - At the end almost 1. - Problem: the probability theory is still assuming the non-existence as the natural state - because it assumes that if something exists, then randomly - The natural state of a way is the non-realization. - Solution:> richness._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981
The Nature of Rationality 1994