Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Theories: theories are statement systems for the explanation of observations, e.g. of behavior or physical, chemical or biological processes. When setting up theories, a subject domain, a vocabulary of the terms to be used and admissible methods of observation are defined. In addition to explanations, the goal of the theory formation is the predictability and comparability of observations. See also systems, models, experiments, observation, observation language, theoretical terms, theoretical entities, predictions, analogies, comparisons, evidence, verification, reduction, definitions, definability.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
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Books on Amazon
Hacking I 22
Kuhn: Thesis: No sharp distinction between observation and theory - is not deductive, concepts are not precise - KuhnVsPopper: context of justification is inseparable from the context of discovery.
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Kuhn I 22
Theory/Fact/Kuhn: scientific fact and scientific theory cannot be separated strictly.
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I 94
Theory/Proof/Kuhn: Applications are not proof of the validity of a theory.
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I 111
New Theory/Special case/Kuhn: arguing that the old theory is a special case of the new, any old theory could be immunized against criticism. - A new theory does not have to include the old. - Can Newton be deduced from Einstein then? - Substituting the parameters of Einstein in other equations, they are still Einstein's space, time and mass! - Mass/Newton: remains. - Mass/Einstein: is convertible into energy. - Newton's laws are not a special case of Einstein's because the fundamental structural elements change as well.
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I 116
In order to be considered a special case, the old theory must be transformed.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Ku I
Th. Kuhn
Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen Frankfurt 1973

Hack I
I. Hacking
Einführung in die Philosophie der Naturwissenschaften Stuttgart 1996

Ku I
Th. Kuhn
Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen Frankfurt 1973


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-11-23