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Nominal/Cresswell: Phrases in noun position. E.g. something, no one, who was abroad, every editor of Science, Arabella, etc. - Unified grammatical class - Quine, Follesdal: "predicate with quantification". - This corresponds to the "E" in (Ex). - E.g.(some x)fx.
Cresswell: takes the propositional function fx as fundamental and uses in this way the variable x, which is purely indicative - purely structurally. - This makes the assumption of names in a language superfluous.
Nominals seem to refer to different things that are by chance the same thing, but could have been different.
Definition that0/Terminology/Cresswell: so we want to call the "that" in (7) (that 5 + 7 = 12 is true). The meaning of that0 is simply the identity function on the reference of "5 + 7 = 12". - ((s) Identity function here: provides practically what was said literally.) - Definition that s: turns the reference of "that 5 + 7 = 12" into the structure. What is simultaneously the sense of "5 + 7 = 12" - that 5 + 7 = 12 is true, must then be the same proposition like the reference of "5 + 7 = 12".
Definition attitude de expressione/Arnim von Stechow/Cresswell: he calls attitudes like the one in (11) "de expressione": then it is not only about the res but also about the way how the attitude is expressed. - E.g. "She giggled, that ..." - unequal de dicto (where it is often not at all about the dictum.)
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984