|Terminologies: here, special features of the language use of the individual authors are explained._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.|
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Nominal/Cresswell: Phrases in noun position. E.g. something, no one, who was abroad, every editor of Science, Arabella, etc. - Unified grammatical class - Quine, Follesdal: "predicate with quantification". - This corresponds to the "E" in (Ex). - E.g.(some x)fx.
Cresswell: takes the propositional function fx as fundamental and uses in this way the variable x, which is purely indicative - purely structurally. - This makes the assumption of names in a language superfluous.
Nominals seem to refer to different things that are by chance the same thing, but could have been different.
Definition that0/Terminology/Cresswell: so we want to call the "that" in (7) (that 5 + 7 = 12 is true). The meaning of that0 is simply the identity function on the reference of "5 + 7 = 12". - ((s) Identity function here: provides practically what was said literally.) - Definition that s: turns the reference of "that 5 + 7 = 12" into the structure. What is simultaneously the sense of "5 + 7 = 12" - that 5 + 7 = 12 is true, must then be the same proposition like the reference of "5 + 7 = 12".
Definition attitude de expressione/Arnim von Stechow/Cresswell: he calls attitudes like the one in (11) "de expressione": then it is not only about the res but also about the way how the attitude is expressed. - E.g. "She giggled, that ..." - unequal de dicto (where it is often not at all about the dictum.)_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984