|Parts, philosophy: in contrast to elements of a set, parts of a whole can stand in hierarchical relations. There may be dependencies, in particular ontological dependencies between parts and whole, as well as between parts of a whole, because parts may not exist if a questionable part does not exist. See also extrinsic, transitivity, reflexivity, symmetry, mereology, set theory, elements, order, overlap, dependency, ontological dependence._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.|
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Part / whole / Nozick: a whole is not equal to the sum: different parts always form another sum, but that may be an equal whole. - A body can lose the appendix or get dentures. - Body remains a whole during the time (identical) - the sum is not identical when parts are replaced. - The self (whole) may even lose memories and change goals and dispositions. - Identity of the parts is not sufficient for continuity of the whole: the relations of the parts could be changed. - whole not equal to sum: scheme of the next successor: the n.c. of the sum is the sum ofthe n.c. of the parts. - But the n.c. of the whole is not the sum of the n.c. of the parts (similar for numbers) - later successor: body, but not the sum of the parts. - Self: is therefore a whole, not a sum. - Whole / criterion: it could also exist if it were made of other parts - II 102 The whole thing must not be a conglomerate._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981
The Nature of Rationality 1994