Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Systems, philosophy of science: systems are compilations of rules for the formation of statements on a previously defined subject domain. Apart from the - usually recursive - rules for the combination of expressions or signs, the specification of the vocabulary or sign set of the system is also required. See also axioms, axiom systems, theories, strength of theories, expressiveness, rules, order, recursion, models, structure, system theory.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Excerpt Meta data

Books on Amazon
GLU 195
System/Environment/Luhmann/GLU/(s): basic concept of system theory - Outside: is always more complex than the inside. - System: helps to reduce complexity. - No system can operate outside its borders. - Each system is identified by its own operation. - Environment: is not surrounded by borders but by horizons. - It itself is not a system. - It has no own operations. - But it is not passive.
II 47
System/Luhmann/Reese-Schäfer: autopoietic systems have no other form of environmental contact than self contact. - Take only environmental impacts by transforming them into their own frequency. - E.g. social system has no use for consciousness.
AU Cas 3
System/closed systems/Luhmann: closed systems cannot be found in the world. - We only consider open systems: biology, social system etc. - So-called operational (closed) systems are only seemingly different.
AU Cass 4
System/Luhmann: a system can distinguish itself from the environment.
AU Kass 8
System/environment/complexity/Luhmann: the environment of a system is always more complex than the system. - Therefore, the system cannot establish a point-to-point relationship with the environment. - therefore complexity must be reduced or ignored . - For example, call different things by the same name.
AU Cas 8
System/Luhmann: has subdivisions - E.g. planning for the system - for them, the system is environment itself - Loosely coupled systems are more stable. - E.g. employees can be exchanged. - Fixed coupling is not found in nature. - In systems not everything is connected with everything! - Not like Newton.
AU Cass 11
System/Luhmann: a system is not an object but a difference. - I am in my environment. - I am not in society, otherwise others would think my thoughts, etc. - In this way, system theory allows individualism. - HabermasVsLuhmann: radical individualism is not sought. - LuhmannVsHabermas: the society does not have to strive for a "human aim". - ((S) This is an aim for humans, society is not a human.)
AU Cas 14
System/Luhmann: E.g. conflicts are systems - because it brings the other in a limited range of variation of responses. - Conflicts have an organizing force. - VsSystemtheorie/VsLuhmann: here conflicts would be underexposed. - LuhmannVsVs: not here. - Conflict: can lead to a too strong integration. - Conflicts are spreading more with a fixed coupling.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

N. Luhmann
Einführung in die Systemtheorie Heidelberg 1992

Lu I
N. Luhmann
Die Kunst der Gesellschaft Frankfurt 1997

> Counter arguments against Luhmann

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-09-25