# Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Syntax: Syntax is a collective term for systems that regulate the composition of signs into linear combinations (strings), as opposed to the semantics interpreting these strings. Syntax questions concern the permissibility, in short, the existence of combinations, not the resulting being true or false of the interpreted formulas. See also proof theory, existence, morphology, semantics, pragmatics, linguistics.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data
I 116
Syntax: Replace salva congruitate: Word chain remains correct when it is replaced. - QuineVs: Replacing changes Syntax: e.g. Copernicus was a complete idiot, iff and only if the earth is a disk. - different ranges: a) Copernicus with predicate + sentence - b) complex predicate - then there is no ambiguous word chain, but different analyzes are possible. - ambiguity: "An astronomer ... iff the earth is flat" can be seen as an operator (like negation). - (Different brackets are possible).
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I 116
Syntax/Quine/Geach: Quine's 1. Insight: spurious names: problem of range - for real names the problem does not exist. - GeachVsQuine: he, himself blurs the distinction by regarding names as abbreviations of certain descriptions.
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I 120
3. syntactic insight Quines: E.g. "lx (2x² + 3x³)" - This function of a number: twice its square plus three times its third power - such complex descriptions can be eliminated by usage definition. (Russell):> relative-clause.
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I 126
4. syntactic insight Quines: Introducing a predicate by a schema letter F. - Problem: E.g.: "Every sentence or its opposite is true" must not become "(Every sentence is true) or ...". - Solution: "F() is then -__ or __s opposite is true". - Geach: sub-clauses (relative-clauses) and pronouns are not mere substitutes. - This is even a mistake in modern logic books.

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gea I
P.T. Geach
Logic Matters Oxford 1972

> Counter arguments against Geach

Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-06-05