Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

 
Synonymy, philosophy: synonymy is the similarity of meaning of linguistic expressions. The conditions for actual equality of meaning are diverse and vary considerably, depending on the consideration of various aspects such as e.g. regional characteristics of the language use or different size of the subject area in question. See also intension, extension, identity, externalism, opacity, substitution, interpretation, translation, language usage.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
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I 77
Synonymy: is inadequate even with preferred occasion sentences. (Additional information required).
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I 78
Synonymy is not equality of stimulus meaning - We do not have a criterion.
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I 92
Stimulus synonymy: for each speaker: "bachelor" = "unmarried man" - But this is not stimulus meaning.
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I 99
Synonymy: some things are synonymous for the experts, but are not for the novice. - Two terms can refer to the same thing - occasion sentences are different, things are the same (front and back of a coin).
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I 103
Synonymy of "Gavagai" and "Rabbits" depends on agreement to stimuli, not on synonymy of terms.
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I 126
Stimulus synonymy is improved by socialization (agreement) - also stimulus analyticity: but now: "2 + 2 = 4" on the same level as "There are black dogs" (acceptability).
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I 351
Synonymy and analyticity are downgraded, identity is absolute.
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I 358
Synonymy: inappropriate for paraphrases.
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II 61 ff
Cognitive synonymy: various points in time, individual > Community > substitutability of words - same verdicts - not in translation.
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VII 24
Synonymy/Quine: not supplied by (empirical) encyclopedia - Synonymy must come before every definition - perhaps from behavior? - explanation is always based on other synonymy.
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VII 28
Synonymy/Quine: substitutability does not prevent vagueness - nevertheless: substitution of synonyms leads from analytical sentences to logical truths - that leads to cognitive synonymy.
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VII 29
Cognitive synonymy/Quine: E.g. "bachelor" and "unmarried" are supposed to be cognitive synonym, this is the same statement as (3) "All and only bachelors are married is analytical" (iff equivalence) - problem: that requires analyticity. - sufficient condition for cognitive synonymy: (4) "It is necessary that all and only bachelors are bachelors - then insert (5) "unmarried" - then it must be said that (5) is true in order to say that (3) is analytical - therefore bachelors and unmarried cognitive synonymy - (s) cognitive synonymy = truth of analyticity - singular terms are cognitive synonym ift the statement of identity, that is expressed by the equal sign "=" between them, is analytical - statements are cognitive synonym if their biconditional is analytical - we can therefore call cognitive synonymy substitutability salva analyticitate.
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VII 56
Synonymy/Quine: a) within one language - b) between languages ​​- for words: mostly only partial synonymy plus stage directions E.g. "spoiled" for food and individuals - chains must be long enough for real synonymy - seems to consist vaguely in approximate equality of the expression situations - and also in similarity the listener reaction.
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VII 58
Homonymy/Quine: E.g. jaw, marrow - problem: - if a is synonymous with b and b with c, then a is also synonymous with c - ((s) transitive) - if b has two meanings, it can be synonymous with a in one meaning and with c in the other.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Q I
W.V.O. Quine
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980

Q II
W.V.O. Quine
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985

Q III
W.V.O. Quine
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978

Q IX
W.V.O. Quine
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967

Q V
W.V.O. Quine
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989

Q VI
W.V.O. Quine
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995

Q VII
W.V.O. Quine
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953

Q VIII
W.V.O. Quine
Bezeichnung und Referenz
In
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg), München 1982

Q X
W.V.O. Quine
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005

Q XII
W.V.O. Quine
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003


> Counter arguments against Quine
> Counter arguments in relation to Synonymy

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-09-25