Dictionary of Arguments

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Synonymy, philosophy: synonymy is the similarity of meaning of linguistic expressions. The conditions for actual equality of meaning are diverse and vary considerably, depending on the consideration of various aspects such as e.g. regional characteristics of the language use or different size of the subject area in question. See also intension, extension, identity, externalism, opacity, substitution, interpretation, translation, language usage.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
Author Item Summary Meta data
I 77
Synonymy: is inadequate even with preferred occasion sentences. (Additional information required).
I 78
Synonymy is not equality of stimulus meaning - We do not have a criterion.
I 92
Stimulus synonymy: for each speaker: "bachelor" = "unmarried man" - But this is not stimulus meaning.
I 99
Synonymy: some things are synonymous for the experts, but are not for the novice. - Two terms can refer to the same thing - occasion sentences are different, things are the same (front and back of a coin).
I 103
Synonymy of "Gavagai" and "Rabbits" depends on agreement to stimuli, not on synonymy of terms.
I 126
Stimulus synonymy is improved by socialization (agreement) - also stimulus analyticity: but now: "2 + 2 = 4" on the same level as "There are black dogs" (acceptability).
I 351
Synonymy and analyticity are downgraded, identity is absolute.
I 358
Synonymy: inappropriate for paraphrases.
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II 61 ff
Cognitive synonymy: various points in time, individual > Community > substitutability of words - same verdicts - not in translation.
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VII (b) 24
Synonymy/Quine: not supplied by (empirical) encyclopedia - Synonymy must come before every definition - perhaps from behavior? - explanation is always based on other synonymy.
VII (b) 28
Synonymy/Quine: substitutability does not prevent vagueness - nevertheless: substitution of synonyms leads from analytical sentences to logical truths - that leads to cognitive synonymy.
VII (b) 29
Cognitive synonymy/Quine: E.g. "bachelor" and "unmarried" are supposed to be cognitive synonym, this is the same statement as (3) "All and only bachelors are married is analytical" (iff equivalence) - problem: that requires analyticity. - sufficient condition for cognitive synonymy: (4) "It is necessary that all and only bachelors are bachelors - then insert (5) "unmarried" - then it must be said that (5) is true in order to say that (3) is analytical - therefore bachelors and unmarried cognitive synonymy - (s) cognitive synonymy = truth of analyticity - singular terms are cognitive synonym ift the statement of identity, that is expressed by the equal sign "=" between them, is analytical - statements are cognitive synonym if their biconditional is analytical - we can therefore call cognitive synonymy substitutability salva analyticitate.
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VII (c) 56
Synonymy/Quine: a) within one language - b) between languages ​​- for words: mostly only partial synonymy plus stage directions E.g. "spoiled" for food and individuals - chains must be long enough for real synonymy - seems to consist vaguely in approximate equality of the expression situations - and also in similarity the listener reaction.
VII (c) 58
Homonymy/Quine: E.g. jaw, marrow - problem: - if a is synonymous with b and b with c, then a is also synonymous with c - ((s) transitive) - if b has two meanings, it can be synonymous with a in one meaning and with c in the other.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Quine I
W.V.O. Quine
Word and Object, Cambridge/MA 1960
German Edition:
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980

Quine II
W.V.O. Quine
Theories and Things, Cambridge/MA 1986
German Edition:
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985

Quine III
W.V.O. Quine
Methods of Logic, 4th edition Cambridge/MA 1982
German Edition:
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978

Quine V
W.V.O. Quine
The Roots of Reference, La Salle/Illinois 1974
German Edition:
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989

Quine VI
W.V.O. Quine
Pursuit of Truth, Cambridge/MA 1992
German Edition:
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995

Quine VII
W.V.O. Quine
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953

Quine VII (a)
W. V. A. Quine
On what there is
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (b)
W. V. A. Quine
Two dogmas of empiricism
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (c)
W. V. A. Quine
The problem of meaning in linguistics
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (d)
W. V. A. Quine
Identity, ostension and hypostasis
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (e)
W. V. A. Quine
New foundations for mathematical logic
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (f)
W. V. A. Quine
Logic and the reification of universals
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (g)
W. V. A. Quine
Notes on the theory of reference
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (h)
W. V. A. Quine
Reference and modality
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (i)
W. V. A. Quine
Meaning and existential inference
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VIII
W.V.O. Quine
Designation and Existence, in: The Journal of Philosophy 36 (1939)
German Edition:
Bezeichnung und Referenz
In
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg), München 1982

Quine IX
W.V.O. Quine
Set Theory and its Logic, Cambridge/MA 1963
German Edition:
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967

Quine X
W.V.O. Quine
The Philosophy of Logic, Cambridge/MA 1970, 1986
German Edition:
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005

Quine XII
W.V.O. Quine
Ontological Relativity and Other Essays, New York 1969
German Edition:
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003

Quine XIII
Willard Van Orman Quine
Quiddities Cambridge/London 1987


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2019-05-21
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