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Sum/mereology/Simons: assuming we consider arbitrary portions of space-time as evidenced by any sums. - Then it is about the question whether the relevant predicates are cumulative. - Definitoin cumulative predicate: if a sum exists, then the predicate that applies to it, also applies on the whole. - (whole unequal sum). - E.g. mass terms can form any sums. - Non-cumulative: E.g. "is a human" - sum can even occupy same space-time as the corresponding individual, without being identical with it.
Sum/mereology: only exists because its parts exist. - (S) So holistically an individual who only exists because other individuals exist.
Sum/identity conditions/Simons sums have no autonomous identity conditions. - E.g. sum Tib + Tail is not identical with the cat Tibbles, although it may never lose its tail. - Modal property of the "could-get-lost" critical - non-identity despite coincidence.
Sum/mereology/Simons: there are even sums across to the categories (mixed-categorical sums): E.g. a body and the events that happened to it. - ((S) life story.)
Sum/mereology/Simons: here, the structure does not matter.
Parts Oxford New York 1987