Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Sum, mereological: mereology is the theory that examines the relationship of parts and totals. A mereological sum is not identical with a whole; it can be formed from parts of different individuals. According to P. Simons (Simons, “Parts. A Study in Ontology”, Oxford, 1987, p. 3), a mereological sum results from the idea of a family of objects that are maximally connected under a particular relation. This definition does not always coincide with the smallest upper bound. (Simons, p. 12). See also complexes, whole, totality, parts, part-of-relation, mereology, barrier.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Excerpt Meta data

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I 111
Sum/mereology/Simons: assuming we consider arbitrary portions of space-time as evidenced by any sums. - Then it is about the question whether the relevant predicates are cumulative. - Definitoin cumulative predicate: if a sum exists, then the predicate that applies to it, also applies on the whole. - (whole unequal sum). - E.g. mass terms can form any sums. - Non-cumulative: E.g. "is a human" - sum can even occupy same space-time as the corresponding individual, without being identical with it.
I 113
Sum/mereology: only exists because its parts exist. - (S) So holistically an individual who only exists because other individuals exist.
I 266
Sum/identity conditions/Simons sums have no autonomous identity conditions. - E.g. sum Tib + Tail is not identical with the cat Tibbles, although it may never lose its tail. - Modal property of the "could-get-lost" critical - non-identity despite coincidence.
I 291
Sum/mereology/Simons: there are even sums across to the categories (mixed-categorical sums): E.g. a body and the events that happened to it. - ((S) life story.)
I 354
Sum/mereology/Simons: here, the structure does not matter.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Si I
P. Simons
Parts Oxford New York 1987

> Counter arguments against Simons

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-09-25