|Subject, philosophy: the subject is, in the most general sense, the originator of actions and creativity as well as bearer of ideas, beliefs, perceptions, feelings and moods. In the tradition of German idealism the subject is opposed to the object. More recently, there has been a shift in the focus of the discussion to questions of access to internal states. See also I, self, subjectivity, object, idealism, actions, action theory._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Jürgen Habermas on Subjects - Dictionary of Arguments
Subject/Habermas: As soon as the ego masters the orientation to claims of validity, it can repeat the internalization of the discursive relationship. Now alter already meets it with the expectation that ego not only assumes the communicative role of the first person naively, but, if necessary, develops it into the role of a proponent within the framework of argumentation. When ego adopts this attitude of alter, when it looks at itself with the eyes of an opponent as it responds to its criticism, it gains a reflected relationship to itself. Ego becomes capable of self-criticism by internalizing the role of the participant in the argument.
The self to which it then refers is not a mysterious authority, but is already familiar to it even from everyday communicative practice: it is it in the communicative role of the first person, as it claims the existence of facts in an objectifying attitude, or in an attitude conforming to norms it enters into an interpersonal relationship considered legitimate or makes a subjective experience accessible to an audience in an expressive attitude. Accordingly, ego (...) can relate to itself as a) an epistemic subject that is capable of learning and has already acquired a certain knowledge, or to itself as a b) a practical subject that can act and in interactions with its related persons has a certain character or has already formed a super-ego or c) to itself as a pathic (sic) subject that is sensitive (...) and is already delimited from the outside world by facts and norms in a privilegedly accessible, intuitively present realm of subjectivity.
The subject is the same subject in all three aspects (epistemic, practical, pathic), no subsequent identification is required.
These self-designations can only be taken up by ego in such a way that it confronts itself as a communicatively acting subject.
If the performative attitude secures unity in the change of modes, practical self-confidence retains a certain priority over epistemic and pathological self-confidence in the reflected self-image._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981