# Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

Home

Structures, philosophy: structures are properties of an object, a set, or a domain of objects which determine the constitution and possible formability of this object, this set, or this domain. The properties defining the structure may be derived from the objects, e.g. magnetic forces or electric charge or can be imprinted on the objects such as e.g. the mathematical operations of multiplication or addition. See also order, system, relations.

_____________
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Maxwell J. Cresswell on Structures - Dictionary of Arguments

II 26
Structure/Cresswell: here: functionally compositional E.g. 5+7 = 12. - Problem: different structures can have the same meaning.
Solution: object of belief would be the structure.
Problem: how the 12 is to come in?
Solution a) equal sign "=" no identity as meaning, but a predicate that connects structures
b) that 12 is not the meaning but the reference of "5 + 7". - (Reference instead of meaning).
Problem: if the meaning is not to be the number, but the structure.
Vs: then "+" is there twice (circular).
This is true only if the semantics is functionally compositional.
Non-functional view: Thesis: the meaning of ("5 + 7") is simply the structure - (reference instead of meaning).
Problem: what is the meaning of the plus sign?

_____________
Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984

> Counter arguments against Cresswell

Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2022-08-12