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Probabilism/Stochastics/Science/Fraassen: with the probabilistic approach we give up the claim for completeness. - Reason: e.g., a predicate P (-m) that applies to something to t, iff P to t + m applies to it: ((s) e.g. "Is bigger in one year") - this predicate has no physical meaning.
Positive correlation/Fraassen: Problem: because of the symmetry of the correlation, there is no reason to believe more strongly that smoking causes cancer, or that cancer causes smoking - or that both are caused by a third factor. - N.B.: relative to the information that C (the common cause) took place, A and B are statistically independent.
Statistics/Fraassen: statistics is the basis of the probability theory - it has to do with distribution and proportions (in actual but finite) classes of actual things. - infinite classes: are only rare: because of greater security when extended to larger populations - science: philosophical problem: that it cannot do without infinite classes unlike statistics.
18th century: a) probability as a measure of ignorance. b) as a measure of objective quantity.
B. van Fraassen
The Scientific Image Oxford 1980