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Language rules / Carnap / Field: determine the truth value by denotation and extension.
Indeterminacy / truth value / Field: even with sentences in which the reference of names or predicates is questionable, there may be a perfect distinct truth value. - Even if it is useless to ask for the reference - FieldVslanguage rules: then, the fact that it makes sense to speak of truth, does not depend on language rules that determine the truth value by denotation and extension.
Realism, Mathematics and Modality Oxford New York 1989
Truth and the Absence of Fact Oxford New York 2001
Science without numbers Princeton New Jersey 1980