|Language, philosophy: language is a set of phonetic or written coded forms fixed at a time for the exchange of information or distinctions within a community whose members are able to recognize and interpret these forms as signs or symbols. In a wider sense, language is also a sign system, which can be processed by machines. See also communication, language rules, meaning, meaning change, information, signs, symbols, words, sentences, syntax, semantics, grammar, pragmatics, translation, interpretation, radical interpretation, indeterminacy._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.|
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Languages/Black: different if speakers do not understand each other.
Talk/Black: prevalence over writing -
New: no fully articulated thought possible without symbolic representation - Words/Malinowski: the same part and equivalents of the action.
Language/Black: Text linear - thinking nonlinear
Linguistics/Black: Tradition: boasts about not considering the "impure meaning".
BloomfieldVs: phonemes must be compared with respect to meaning - only if the examiner finds out which statements are similar and which different in their meaning, he can learn to recognize the phonemic differences. - Nevertheless, pro purely formal SW/pro Ockham: meanings should not be used without need. - One should rather rely on differences in meaning than on substantive meaning details
Language/Black: an infinite number of sentences possible - therefore open system like E.g. chess, chemical compositions, tunes
Def Language/Black: too complex to be definable - Features: anchored in speech - speech act is targeted and self-regulating. Language is an institution (language community) - system built on units - meaning supporting, effect triggering, pliable
Language/Locke/Black: for transmission of thoughts - (ideas)
VsLanguage/Black: Berkeley: knowledge confused and obscured through abuse - Locke: ditto - Whitehead: incomplete, only a transitional stage Risk: false confidence in them - Wittgenstein: all philosophy is criticism of language - Swift: Gulliver: abolition of all words ... II 166 Sartre: disgust: Roquentin wants to withdraw into silence._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Bedeutung und Intention
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg), Frankfurt/M 1979
Sprache München 1973
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983