|Singular Terms, philosophy: singular terms are linguistic expressions for individual objects or situations or totals, which can be determined as something individual. See also general terms, relative terms, abstract terms, reference._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Singular Term/Predicate/Subsentential Expressions/Brandom: this is about objective referencing (reference), not about believed propositions - non-propositional, conceptual contents.
Singular Terms - substitution inferences are always symmetrical: equivalence classes.
Predicate substitution inferences may be asymmetric: Families (reflexive, transitive).
Singular Term/Frege: the concept particular cannot be explained independently from the concept singular term - Brandom: not clear what singular terms are, cannot be explained by successful reference - Quine: singular term includes reference, error possible - Brandom: not everyone can be recognized as a singular term: E.g. "root 2", "natural satellite of the Earth" may be more than one thing - Problem: if omniscience of the speaker should be required.
Because sentences are fundamental, it is not clear why there should be any subsentential expressions at all - they cannot have a semantic content in the same respectas sentences - subsentential expressions necessary for the formation of potentially infinite number of sentences.
Singular Term/Brandom: its introduction does not only require application criteria but also identity criteria (for substitutability).
Singular Term/Brandom: are those expressions which play a dual syntactic and semantic substitutional role: 1) SIS: substitution-inferential significance - 2) SSR - substitution-structural role.
Definition singular term/Brandom: an expression that is substituted and whose occurrence is symmetrically inferentially significant - the substitutable (singular term): symmetric - substitution frame (predicates) asymmetrical.
Inversion: Substitutions are not always right: the conclusions are often inferentially weaker than the premises - from "something is a dog" follows "it is a mammal", but not vice versa - singular term: exists, because expressive power of the language would be lost if they were allowed to be asymmetric - Example/(s): if substitution led to weakening of the determination of the object.
Singular term/Brandom: Frames can be regarded as derived singular terms: e.g. "the father of a" may then be substituted into her (FregeVs). - Brandom: they are still subsitutable and therefore they differ from sentences.
There are exceptions in the singular terms that behave differently, but they can only exist, because there are normal singular terms.
They play both the syntactic and semantic substitutional role.
Singular Term/Predicate/Brandom: indispensable in all languages with conditionals - why are objects needed: for the same reason as singular terms: you need something that means what conditionals mean.
Singular Term/Brandom: 1) Obtain - 2) Designate - 3) Name
Newen I 165
Singular Term/Brandom: Problem: because it does not have reference as a basic concept, it creates
1) equivalenz classes of syntactically identical terms (substitutability)
2) inferential role: helps to isolate the grammatical entities and identify their role as subject, verb , etc.
Subject Term/Singular Term: here the implications are symmetrical and reversible. - E.g. Franklin/Postmaster. Verb: here the reversal is not symmetrical - E.g. goes for a walk/exercises. - At the same time transcendental argument for the splittedness of the world - (predecessor: Strawson)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Expressive Vernunft Frankfurt 2000
Begründen und Begreifen Frankfurt 2001
Analytische Philosophie zur Einführung Hamburg 2005
Einführung in die Sprachphilosophie Darmstadt 2008