|Semantics: Semantics is the field of linguistics, which deals with the meaning of expressions, words, parts of words, sentences or signs. Aids for ascertaining the meaning are investigations of the use and the determination of the truth value (true or false) of the statements, which can be determined from the linguistic or action-like utterances. Therefore, semantic questions are ultimately truth questions. See also truth, reference, meaning, sense, semiology, signs, symbols, syntax, pragmatics, linguistics._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.|
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Meta-Semantics/Stalnaker: meta-semantic facts: E.g. which language is spoken in a possible world - or whether we interpret the language with our language from the real world or the one they speak there - or if we actually denote the language of the real world or the local language of the possible worlds from the perspective of the possible worlds itself.These facts ensure that our signs have the representational properties that they have - on these facts depends what is said or thought.
Semantics/Syntax/language-independent/Stalnaker: the step from syntax to semantics frees the theory from language dependence.
Modal Semantics/Stalnaker: should allocate a separate range to each possible worlds -((s) but then you can no longer call possible worlds "ways of how things could be").
Semantics/Stalnaker/(s): meanign from real world - Meta-semantics: meaning from respective possible world Because meta-semantics asks by which facts the semantic value is created and the facts must be from the respective possible world.
Semantics: says which semantic values have the expressions of a language - Meta-semantics: what facts determine the semantic values.
Pre-Semantics/Kaplan: refers to those who believe that a name means something that is at the end of a historic chain.
Semantics/Kaplan: rather gives us the meaning than telling us how it could be discovered. - Similar to Kripke.
Possible world/Actual World/Meta-Semantics/MS/Stalnaker: Meta-semantics: takes into account the facts that determine the semantic values - i.e. ultimately it takes into account the differences between possible worlds - therefore, MS is suitable if you want to consider a possible world as actual world - it is the meta-semantically understood primary intension of a statement that provides the information that we want to transmit.
Two-dimensional semantics/Stalnaker: should be interpreted meta-semantically - not semantically - Meta-semantics: is fact based, therefore no access to a priori truth. - Semantics: must take internal states.
Semantic/Meta-Semantics/Semantics/Stalnaker: E.g. Assuming we can only say how things possibly are, given the facts, how they actually are. - Then: semantic: the set S only expresses the Proposition Q under condition P. meta-semantic: sentence S expresses only a conditional proposition, not a singular one - i.e. not the content depends on the facts, but it is relative itself._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Ways a World may be Oxford New York 2003