|States of affairs: is an expression for something that can be represented by a sentence. See also facts, situations, actions, objects, states, atomic sentences, protocol sentences._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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State of affairs/st.o.a/Chisholm: characterized by existence - but also impossible state of affairs: E.g. round-and-square - solution: whoever thinks it, thinks that it exists according to possibility - (he also thinks "There are quadrangles") - but no "unrealized possibilities" but: state of affairs exists like anything else! - non-composed state of affairs can be affirmative or negative - negative state of affairs: if the property is not exemplified.
Fact/fact/proposition/Chisholm: it is more natural to speak of accepting "propositions" than accepting facts.
Fact/Chisholm: Definition involving: a involves b: whoever thinks a, thinks also b - Definition to contain: 1. if a exists, b also exists, 2. whoever accepts a, accepts b - E.g. a implies a v b, but does not involve it because you do not have to think a v b - a also does not include a v b, because you do not have to accept it - different with "and" -> intentional criteria for the identity of facts - Conjunction/Negation:...+..._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Die erste Person Frankfurt 1992
Roderick M. Chisholm
Erkenntnistheorie Graz 2004