Books on Amazon
Representation/Goodman: An object is to itself similar to the highest degree, but rarely represents itself. Similarity is, unlike representation, reflexive. - A painting can represent the Duke of Wellington, but the Duke is not the painting. - A painting of the castle of Marlborough Constable is more similar to any other image, than to the castle and yet it represents the castle and not another picture, not even the most faithful copy.
Denotation: Goodman: is the core of representation and regardless of similarity. (Non-representational: verbal, non-pictural).
An image never merely represents x, but x as a man, or x as a mountain
but not always "representation-as": a "man-image" represents an indefinite man, not "as" a certain.
To represent the first Duke of Wellington means, to represent Arthur Wellesley and a soldier, but not necessarily to represent him as a soldier. For some pictures of him are civilian images.
Representations are therefore images that operate in the same manner as descriptions.
((s) E.g. Missused does not represent (and does not denote) the original.)
Representation/Goodman: is, like the description, denotative. It is no reflection. It is not a language.
Definition representation and description/Goodman: refer a symbol to things to which it is true (see expression).
The so often emphasized difference between iconic and other characters is transitory and trivial.
And yet such a drastic reform was imperative. It allows full relativity of representation and representation by other than through images alone. Objects and events, visual and nonvisual can be represented by both visual and non-visual symbols.
E.g. colors can represent their complementary colors, perspective can be reversed, and so on "naturalism" is a matter of habit. But the habit does not take us to the border line between description and representation. Not any amount of familiarity makes the passage an image.
E.g. Electronic music without notation can be representational, while music in standard notation if even denoted, is descriptive.
Weisen der Welterzeugung Frankfurt 1984
Tatsache Fiktion Voraussage Frankfurt 1988
Sprachen der Kunst Frankfurt 1997
N. Goodman/K. Elgin
Revisionen Frankfurt 1989