Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Relations, philosophy: relations are that what can be discovered or produced in objects or states when compared to other objects or other states with regard to a selected property. For example, dimensional differences between objects A and B, which are placed into a linguistic order with the expression "larger" or "smaller" as a link, are determinations of relations which exist between the objects. Identity or equality is not accepted as a relation by most authors. See also space, time, order, categories, reflexivity, symmetry, transitivity.
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Books on Amazon:
Bertrand Russell
Geach I 320ff
Relation/Principia Mathematica/Russell/Geach: sentences of the form "Fab" must be treated as individual copies of the form "Ya", i.e. a sentence that says how A is related to B is a particular type of the predication of a.
Quine: E.g. Edith envies everyone who is happier than Edith - Herbert is not happier than anyone who envies Herbert; so we prove that Herbert is not happier than Edith - solution: addition of assumptions: either A "Edith envies Herbert" or B "does not" - Problem: in A "envies Herbert" is a term, in B "happier than Edith". - We cannot form a predicate with a name as we need it - therefore the relations must be predicative - relational propositions make predications about the related things A and B - then it makes sense to say that there is something in A which answers the predication, but if we apply the same sentence to B, there is nothing that answers the relation - It is unnatural to regard the state of "being envied" as a property of Herbert.
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Russell I 48
Relation/Russell: D"R: class of all terms that have the relation R to this or that thing -" R"y": "the R of y": "the father of y".

B. Russell/A.N. Whitehead
Principia Mathematica Frankfurt 1986

B. Russell
Das ABC der Relativitätstheorie Frankfurt 1989

B. Russell
Probleme der Philosophie Frankfurt 1967

B. Russell
Die Philosophie des logischen Atomismus
Eigennamen, U. Wolf (Hg), Frankfurt 1993

B. Russell
Wahrheit und Falschheit
Wahrheitstheorien, G. Skirbekk (Hg), Frankfurt 1996

Gea I
P.T. Geach
Logic Matters Oxford 1972

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-25