|Relations, philosophy: relations are that what can be discovered or produced in objects or states when compared to other objects or other states with regard to a selected property. For example, dimensional differences between objects A and B, which are placed into a linguistic order with the expression "larger" or "smaller" as a link, are determinations of relations which exist between the objects. Identity or equality is not accepted as a relation by most authors. See also space, time, order, categories, reflexivity, symmetry, transitivity.|
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Relations/Order/Stages/Universals/Armstrong: Laws of Nature/LoN: second order relation between universals - if it is a law of nature that Fs are Gs: between F-ness and G-ness: non-logical, contingent necessity Notation: N(F,G) it follows: (x)(Fx>Gx), but not vice versa (also simple regularity without necessity possible) - Lewis: if two universals are in relation and this relation is in relation to a regularity, then there is a link to this regularity - This second link is an entailment - question: is regularity part of the relation? then it is a surplus above the regularity - Form: (P&Q)>P(P = regularity) - Alternative: P>(PvQ): Armstrong pro. But how can that be forced into the form N(F,G)>(x)(Fx>Gx)?
Logical relations: cannot exist between separate entities - causal relations: only between separate ones.
Armstrong: this principle results, in turn, from the idea that absolute necessity arises only from identity - MartinVs: here you must keep a close eye on the range of the examples.
AR II = Disp
D. M. Armstrong
Dispositions, Tim Crane, London New York 1996
What is a Law of Nature? Cambridge 1983