|Scope, range, logic, philosophy: range is a property of quantifiers or operators to be able to be applied to a larger or smaller range. For example, the necessity operator N may be at different points of a logical formula. Depending on the positioning, the resulting statement has a considerably changed meaning. E.g. great range "It is necessary that there is an object that ..." or small range "There is an object that is necessarily ....". See also quantifiers, operators, general invariability, stronger/weaker, necessity, Barcan Formula._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Scope/Cresswell: E.g. everyone loves someone:
a) everyone is such that someone is so that the former loves the second
b) someone> - someone is so that everyone is so that he, the second named, loves him, the former - game theoretical semantics/CresswellVsHintikka: has brought nothing new, what Kamp/Heim did not already have - game theory: sequence of choice.
Scope/description/propositional attitudes/Cresswell: sentences about propositional attitudes can always give descriptions a wide range. That is, to make them rigid.
He*/scope/Cresswell: large scope: then it can also be interpreted as "I" - narrow scope: allows "he", "she" or "it".
Gods-example/solution/Cresswell:> - speaker index. (See Two omniscient Gods)
"Now"/scope/Cresswell: analog to the case of "I".
Narrow scope: here "now" becomes "then". - "here"/Cresswell: Problem: that "people coordinates" could lead to an infinite list - because of the context dependency. - CresswellVs: instead I use (Cresswell, 1973a, pp. 110-119.) properties of utterances.
Hob/Cob/Nob-Example/Geach/Cresswell: (Geach 1967, 628): Cresswell: needs a quantifier, which is simultaneously inside and outside the scope of the attitude-verb. - Solution/Hill/Kraut: intensional objects as surrogates for individuals and a further quantifier.
Names/scope/Cresswell: normally names have a wider reach than modal operators - this is the "modal objection" VsKripke. - KripkeVsVs: (Kripke, 1972, p. 279.)_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984