|Reference, philosophy: reference means a) the relation between an expression and one or more objects, thus the reference or b) the object (reference object) itself. Terminological confusion arises easily because the author, to whom this term ultimately goes back - G. Frege - spoke of meaning (in the sense of "pointing at something"). Reference is therefore often referred to as Fregean meaning in contrast to the Fregean sense, which describes what we call meaning today. See also meaning, sense, intension, extension.|
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| III 57ff
Denotation/Goodman: Something that does not denote, can still refer by explication and expression.
Definition denote/Goodman: means, make reference, but being denoted does not necessarily mean to refer to something. And yet, expression like representation is also a mode of symbolization. And an image must stand for that, what it expresses, it must symbolize it, it must refer to it.
III 63 ff
In normal language: The reference of "man" to
"Churchill" and "word" to "man" is clearly denotation - But: if, one the other hand, Churchill symbolizes "man", and "man" symbolizes "word" the reference is clearly exemplification.
Denotation/exemplification/Goodman: the two run in opposite directions.
Possession (of properties) is not a kind of reference.
Not all chains formed from references direct the reference from one end to another. Example: The name of the name of the rose is not the name of the rose.
Weisen der Welterzeugung Frankfurt 1984
Tatsache Fiktion Voraussage Frankfurt 1988
Sprachen der Kunst Frankfurt 1997
N. Goodman/K. Elgin
Revisionen Frankfurt 1989