|Reference, philosophy: reference means a) the relation between an expression and one or more objects, thus the reference or b) the object (reference object) itself. Terminological confusion arises easily because the author, to whom this term ultimately goes back - G. Frege - spoke of meaning (in the sense of "pointing at something"). Reference is therefore often referred to as Fregean meaning in contrast to the Fregean sense, which describes what we call meaning today. See also meaning, sense, intension, extension.|
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|I 146 ~
Kaplan: Direct Reference: does not depend on the conceptual content of the corresponding belief - externalism Vs: avoids a dualism between the reference and content as representation -
I 196 ~
Reference / Esfeld: when content through social. Certain practice within the physical world, then direct reference (Kaplan) on things.
Holismus Frankfurt/M 2002