Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Propositions, philosophy: propositions are defined as the meanings of sentences, whereby a sentence is interpreted as a character string, which must still be interpreted in relation to a situation or a speaker. E.g. “I am hungry” has a different meaning from the mouth of each new speaker. On the other hand, the sentence “I am hungry” from the mouth of the speaker, who first expressed the German sentence, has the same meaning as the German sentence uttered by him. See also meaning, propositional attitudes, identity conditions, opacity, utterances, sentences.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
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Books on Amazon
I 35
Proposition/Structure/Possible world/Stalnaker: propositions are highly structured, possible worlds are not - the structures that exist between propositions, do not exist like that between possible worlds - propositions can be stronger or weaker - possible worlds cannot - a minimum theory of propositions and possible worlds needs only the structures of propositions, not of possible worlds.
I 37
Proposition/Stalnaker: is made up of individuals and properties - sentence/Stalnaker: is made up of names and predicates.
I 51
Understanding/Stalnaker: a proposition cannot be understood like a sentence, because it is already the content.
I 61f
Def Proposition/Stalnaker: is no more than a sub-region, or subset of possible worlds - Def assertion: asserting a proposition is nothing else than to locate the real world in this subset - Def true-relative-to-x: to say, a Proposition is true relative to a possible world x means that the possible world x is in the subset (of possible worlds) that constitutes the proposition - Def true simpliciter: is to say that the real world is in this subset (of possible worlds that constitute the proposition) - Proposition: is identified with its truth conditions.
I 191
Secondary Proposition/Two-dimensional semantics/Chalmers/Stalnaker: ("fx"): based on the real world - primary: ("fp") based on the particular world in which the statement is made - logical form: Def fp: logical Form: fx(y) = f(x,y) and fp(x) = f(x,x) or equivalent: fp(x) = fx(x).


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Sta I
R. Stalnaker
Ways a World may be Oxford New York 2003


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-10-19