|Propositions, philosophy: propositions are defined as the meanings of sentences, whereby a sentence is interpreted as a character string, which must still be interpreted in relation to a situation or a speaker. E.g. “I am hungry” has a different meaning from the mouth of each new speaker. On the other hand, the sentence “I am hungry” from the mouth of the speaker, who first expressed the German sentence, has the same meaning as the German sentence uttered by him. See also meaning, propositional attitudes, identity conditions, opacity, utterances, sentences._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Proposition/Chisholm: that, what changes when someone else says "I'm hungry" - Thesis: there is no proposition of the 1st person. "I'm F" - no properties like "sitting-next-to-someone". "living opposite" (impure predication) - no "nonplatonic entities": "the property of being identical with this thing" - primary form: not accepting propositions but self-attribution properties.
Proposition: Subtype of facts.
Properties/Chisholm: Problem: E.g. ""French" is not applicable to itself ": here one cannot say that it has the property, not to itself ... otherwise paradox - solution:" ... has not the property ... "- not every proposition corresponds to a property, therefore not every sentence expresses a proposition.
Proposition/Chisholm: if there is no property of the "sitting-next-to-someone", then there is also no proposition "someone sits next to this man", instead we can define them by properties, we just do not need them in addition.
Proposition/Chisholm: from the proposition "There is something that is F" does not follow that there is the property of being such that there is something that is F (E.g. round square). - Accepting a proposition: Considering that something ...
Proposition/Chisholm: real: e.g. "All human beings are mortal", "There are mountains", "two and two are four" but not: "Socrates is wise", "Emil stands" - attribution: no "accepting of propositions" - "Proper name-fallacy". To believe that there is a proposition "Emil stands" - just as unlikely as the property "to be identical with Emil".
Proposition/Chisholm: involves an eternal object (property or relation), and also a state of affairs. Sentence: does not involve an eternal object._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Die erste Person Frankfurt 1992
Roderick M. Chisholm
Erkenntnistheorie Graz 2004