Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Principles, philosophy of science: physical principles are not the same as laws of nature. Rather, laws can be gained from principles or traced back to principles. Examples are the principle of the shortest time, the principle of the smallest effect, the uncertainty principle. See also theories, laws of nature, laws, natural constants.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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II 10
Principle/Nozick: to show that principles explain a p, involves that they contain it. But that does not prove that p.
II 128
Richness/principle/existence/Nozick: thesis: "All possibilities are realized." - This follows from the assumption of the egalitarian theory that the options "something"/"nothing" are equal. - This requires infinitely separate possible worlds because options can be contradictory. - Then you need no explanation why something is or is not, because everything is (somewhere) realized. - Then there is no fact "X instead of Y".
II 130
Nothing: one of the unrealized possibilities is also that there is nothing - but that is one among many, not the inegalitary situation that there would be "exclusively nothing".
II 347
Consciousness/explanation/evolution theory/Nozick: consciousness allows other types of behavior: - to be guided by principles.
- - -
Singer I 220
Prinzipien/Verantwortung/Nozick/P. Singer: Nozick macht eine sinnvolle Unterscheidung zwischen „historischen“ und „Zeitscheiben“-Prinzipien. (R. Nozick, Anarchy, State and Utopia, New York, 1974):
Def historisches Prinzip/Nozick: um zu verstehen, ob eine gegebene Verteilung von Gütern gerecht oder ungerecht ist, müssen wir fragen, wie die Verteilung zustande kam. Wir müssen ihre Geschichte kennen. Sind die Parteien aufgrund ursprünglich gerechtfertigten Erwerbs zum Besitz berechtigt?
Def Zweischeiben-Prinzipien/Nozick: betrachten nur die gegenwärtigen Gegebenheiten und fragen nicht nach dem Zustandekommen.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

No I
R. Nozick
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981

R., Nozick
The Nature of Rationality 1994

Sing I
Peter Singer
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011

Sing II
P. Singer
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-10-19