|Positivism, philosophy: modern positivism represents the demand to trace back statements with a claim to explanation to differences which can be ascertained in the objects of investigation. What is ascertainable is, in this case, relativized to a framework theory and its methods. This is intended to exclude foreign and non-verifiable statements. See also empiricism, internal/external, truth, provability.|
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Logical Positivism/Fraassen: added a linguistic component or a meaning theory and a language theory to empiricism - FraassenVsPositivism - (pro empiricism) - positivism: however, is right that ontological and epistemic problems are actually linguistic - in particular, modality.
Positivism/Theory/Observation/Language/Theoretical Terms/Fraassen: Grover MaxwellVsPositivism: distinction theory/observation cannot be drawn - -"theoretical entities"/Fraassen: category error: only terms are theoretical.
1. Can language even be divided in theoretical/non-theoretical?
2. Can objects and events be divided into observable/non-observable?
Maxwell: denies both - Fraassen ditto - also in everyday language there are theoretical terms - observable:
For example, a flying horse is observable - seeing-as: prehistoric men see no tennis ball because they can not see it "as".
Observability/Maxwell/Fraassen: observability is gradual (e.g., by distance).
B. van Fraassen
The Scientific Image Oxford 1980