|Paradoxes: are contradictions within formally correct statements or sets of statements that lead to an existence assumption, which initially seemed plausible, to be withdrawn. Paradoxes are not errors, but challenges that may lead to a re-formulation of the prerequisites and assumptions, or to a change in the language, the subject domain, and the logical system. See also Russellian paradox, contradictions, range, consistency._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|GLU 131 ff
Paradox/Luhmann: paradoxes arise when conditions of its possibility are also conditions of its impossibility simultaneously - Eg.g paradox of Epimenides: This sentence is false - condition of falsehood is also condition of truth.
The paradox does not have therefore the form A = Not A, that would be a contradictory, but not paradoxical statement, but A because not A - paradoxes arise when the observer (each observation is a distinction) asks the question of the unity of the distinction.
Any distinction is paradoxical, because both sides are always simultaneously present. - Paradox: the system observes that its environment is nothing more than an internal product of its operations.
Paradoxes/Luhmann are a problem for the observer, not necessary for the operations of the observing system. - Asymmetrisization can reverse paradoxes.
Paradox/Luhmann/GLU: logical form: not A = not A but because A non-A. - The conditions of possibility are at the same time the conditions of its impossibility. A paradox arises when the observer raises the question of the unity of the distinction. - Every distinction is paradoxical, because both sides are always simultaneously present - they are a problem for the observer - not for the operations of the system.
_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Einführung in die Systemtheorie Heidelberg 1992
Die Kunst der Gesellschaft Frankfurt 1997