|Paradoxes: are contradictions within formally correct statements or sets of statements that lead to an existence assumption, which initially seemed plausible, to be withdrawn. Paradoxes are not errors, but challenges that may lead to a re-formulation of the prerequisites and assumptions, or to a change in the language, the subject domain, and the logical system. See also Russellian paradox, contradictions, range, consistency._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Rabenparadox/Hempel/Goodman: e.g. A given object (a piece of paper) is neither black nor a raven
which confirms the hypothesis:
All non-black objects are not ravens
but this hypothesis is logically equivalent to
"All ravens are black".
The ability to operate ornithology in the room should make unauthorized recourse to facts that are not mentioned in our example suspicious.
Anything that is not a raven is not black.
Everything that is not black is not a raven.
Nothing is black or a raven. (> Not ravens).
Our definition has the fault that it does not require to consider all existing data._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Weisen der Welterzeugung Frankfurt 1984
Tatsache Fiktion Voraussage Frankfurt 1988
Sprachen der Kunst Frankfurt 1997
N. Goodman/K. Elgin
Revisionen Frankfurt 1989