Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Order, philosophy: order is the division of a subject area by distinctions or the highlighting of certain differences as opposed to other differences. The resulting order can be one-dimensional or multi-dimensional, i.e. linear or spatial. Examples are family trees, lexicons, lists, alphabets. It may be that only an order makes certain characteristics visible, e.g. contour lines. Ordering spaces may be more than three-dimensional, e.g. in the attribution of temperatures to color-determined objects. See also conceptual space, hierarchies, distinctness, indistinguishability, stratification, identification, individuation, specification.
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Order/Benefit theory/Benefit/Scale/Calibration/Von Neumann/Morgenstern/Stalnaker: E.g. someone prefers duck over salmon and salmon over oatmeal. A > B > C - refinement of the scale: one asks the person whether they would prefer B or a 50/50 lot for A v C - if they choose B, it means that they have shifted more to the left on their scale B, closer to A - this process can be repeated to reach ever further refinements - preferences between lots determine numerical values for benefits. - Question: Is it useful to compare preferences interpersonally? - It does definitely not mean that there were facts that were hidden from us. - E.g. just as we also cannot say that grams are less than kilometers. - Solution: interpersonal comparisons are not useful, because there is no non-conventional point zero.

Sta I
R. Stalnaker
Ways a World may be Oxford New York 2003

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-29