|Ontology: is the set of material or immaterial objects, of which a theory assumes that it can make statements about them. According to classical logic, an existence assumption must be assumed. In other fields of knowledge, the question of whether relations really exist or are merely mental constructs, is not always regarded as decisive as long as one can work with them. Immaterial objects are e.g. linguistic structures in linguistics. See also existence, mathematical entities, theoretical entities, theoretical terms, reality, metaphysics, semantic web.|
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|EMD II 322
Ontology/Necessity/Theory T1/Peacocke: we accept the abstractions as unanalyzed predicates for the use in logical axioms and rules of inference - we assume properties not as entities that meet the object language - i.e. not that there is no one - even though the object language has no quantification over objects, a finite treatment of infinitely many singular terms requires an attribution of entities: E.g. denote (Cleopatra) = Cleopatra - the (father of t1) = father of the (t1 ) - Tr (t1 is greater than t2) ↔ den(t1) is greater than den(t2) - (see the original text: underlined: wellformed phrases) - but this identity is needed only if one assumes properties in the object language.
Essays on Identity and Substance Oxford 2016
G. Evans/J. McDowell
Truth and Meaning Oxford 1977
The Varieties of Reference (Clarendon Paperbacks) Oxford 1989