|Ontology: is the set of material or immaterial objects, of which a theory assumes that it can make statements about them. According to classical logic, an existence assumption must be assumed. In other fields of knowledge, the question of whether relations really exist or are merely mental constructs, is not always regarded as decisive as long as one can work with them. Immaterial objects are e.g. linguistic structures in linguistics. See also existence, mathematical entities, theoretical entities, theoretical terms, reality, metaphysics, semantic web.|
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Ontological Standard Analysis/Meixner: universal names arise from predication - E.g. what makes the sentence Fritz is a human true? Exemplification - some true exemplifkation statements presuppose more than the O.ST.A.: identity statements: Fritz is identical with Fritz: general exemplification principle - O.St-A: delivers the truth of Fritz EXEM lo1 [O1 is identical with o1] - just as true: Fritz, Fritz EXEM lo1.o2 [O1 is identical to O2] -. ((s) a) be identical with itself, b) be identical to Fritz).
Ontological Standard Analysis/MeixnerVs: cannot be maintained due to heterologous logical property, not to exemplify itself - e.g. the property to be a person who is not even a human being (does not exemplify itself) - the name o1 [o1 EXEM not o1]. designates nothing that corresponds to its meaning.
Einführung in die Ontologie Darmstadt 2004