Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments


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Ontology: is the set of material or immaterial objects, of which a theory assumes that it can make statements about them. According to classical logic, an existence assumption must be assumed. In other fields of knowledge, the question of whether relations really exist or are merely mental constructs, is not always regarded as decisive as long as one can work with them. Immaterial objects are e.g. linguistic structures in linguistics. See also existence, mathematical entities, theoretical entities, theoretical terms, reality, metaphysics, semantic web.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data
I 695
Physics/Dennett: true throughout the universe, such as mathematics. BarrowVs. >Minsky:
I 177
System/Mathematics/Minsky/Dennett: Question: could there be another arithmetic that would be equally good? (> alien intelligence).
Minsky: No, there could not. The reason for this is the "scantiness principle"! If two relatively simple processes have produced similar products, these products are usually completely identical! (Literary Essay: "Why strange beings will be understandable").
For example: Dennett: let us look at the "quantity of all possible processes" e.g. Turing machines, computer programs. Apart from vanishing exceptions, the vast majority of these processes do nothing at all!
If you only find two that do something similar, then they are almost always connected at some level of analysis through a single process.
I 178
Minsky: a structure that searches through the simplest processes will soon find fragments that do not necessarily look arithmetic, but are arithmetic! Fact of the geometry of the computing universe (library). A world much more limited than the world of real things.
Dennett: this applies not only to arithmetic, but to all necessary truths!
II 77
Reason/Existence/Ontology/Dennett: Millions of years there were reasons, but nobody existed who formulated reasons, represented reasons, or even appreciated them in the strict sense.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Dennett I
D. Dennett
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, New York 1995
German Edition:
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Dennett II
D. Dennett
Kinds of Minds, New York 1996
German Edition:
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999

Dennett III
Daniel Dennett
"COG: Steps towards consciousness in robots"
Bewusstein, Thomas Metzinger, Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1996

Dennett IV
Daniel Dennett
"Animal Consciousness. What Matters and Why?", in: D. C. Dennett, Brainchildren. Essays on Designing Minds, Cambridge/MA 1998, pp. 337-350
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild, Frankfurt/M. 2005

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-02-25
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