|Ontology: is the set of material or immaterial objects, of which a theory assumes that it can make statements about them. According to classical logic, an existence assumption must be assumed. In other fields of knowledge, the question of whether relations really exist or are merely mental constructs, is not always regarded as decisive as long as one can work with them. Immaterial objects are e.g. linguistic structures in linguistics. See also existence, mathematical entities, theoretical entities, theoretical terms, reality, metaphysics, semantic web.|
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Ontology/Chisholm: only: "Ens": a) contingent: states (events), individuals (borders, substances) b) necessary: abstractions, substance - only 5 basic concepts: 1. "x exemplifies y", 2. "x is necessary so that it is F ", 3" x is a condition of y ", 4" x is part of y ", 5" x thinks that there is something that is F "- ontology/Chisholm : platonic, accepted eternal things - VsNon-Platonic Entities: E.g. "property to be identical with that thing", "living vis-a-vis " ("purified ontology") - we do not accept that, in addition to the matters still there are events - existence: non-obtaining things (situations) can exist.
Ontology/Chisholm: undefined basic concepts: thinking [conceiving] existence [obtaining], exemplify, relation, possibility de re, direct attribution.
Die erste Person Frankfurt 1992
Roderick M. Chisholm
Erkenntnistheorie Graz 2004