Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Benefit: In philosophy, "benefit" pertains to the advantageous or valuable outcome, result, or advantage gained from a particular action, situation, or state of affairs, often considered in ethical or consequentialist contexts.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Max Black on Benefit - Dictionary of Arguments

III 148
Benefit/Black: product of value and probability minus costs - ((s) E.g. small benefit, high probability corresponds to inverse proportion of great benefit/low probability).
Black: Problem: quantification of benefit, so that a conversion becomes useful.
Benefit/Black: for given cost the positive or negative development of the benefit depends on the probability and the rating. Sufficiently high ratings always secure a benefit.
III 151
Political Elections/Benefits/Black: Suppose one vote does not make a difference, only at least 100 would: then the problem reproduces itself on the line between 99 and 100. -
E.g. Suppose you know that your own vote does not matter - Then the benefit is negative. - i.e., the costs exceed it. - Then it is irrational to vote.
Problem: if others also follow this premise, it is wrong! - Self-denying prophecy.
Variant: if Joe is late, then the election is "already decided" - Vs: every vote counts equally.
III 155
Similarly: the individual vote is not critical, as long as not too many others also abstain - that refutes itself if followed consistently.
BlackVs: this should not be.
Ad III 157
((s) this comes down to an epistemic rather than ontological problem.
III 159
Solution/Black: I want as many voters of my party as possible to vote - that includes myself - (no categorical argument, but the best one possible). >Political elections.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Black I
Max Black
"Meaning and Intention: An Examination of Grice’s Views", New Literary History 4, (1972-1973), pp. 257-279
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg), Frankfurt/M 1979

Black II
M. Black
The Labyrinth of Language, New York/London 1978
German Edition:
Sprache. Eine Einführung in die Linguistik München 1973

Black III
M. Black
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983

Black IV
Max Black
"The Semantic Definition of Truth", Analysis 8 (1948) pp. 49-63
Truth and Meaning, Paul Horwich, Aldershot 1994

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2024-02-27
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