|Negation, philosophy, logic: negation of a sentence. In logic, this is done by prefixing the negation symbol. Colloquially expressed by the word "not", which can be at different positions in the sentence. If the negation refers only to one sentence part, this must be made clear by the position, e.g. a predicate can be denied without negating the whole sentence. In logic, therefore, inner and outer negation is distinguished by the use of different symbols.|
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Negation/Geach: the problem with compound expressions is always the negation (with "all", "some").
Negation/Geach: in the subject-predicate-sentence: Negation is only possible from the predicate, not from the subject. - Modernity: quantification: also the negation of "there is" is possible. - New: also subject negation is possible: E.g. "not everyone is ..."
Negation/Russell: cannot be applied as a primitive term to propositions, therefore: All x are F: Negation: some x are not F "- Negation: not via a sentence: "Do not open the door" is on the same level as "Open the door".
Negation is not "logical secondary". - asymmetry: only with identifying predicates: e.g. the same man/not the same man - subject negation: "not everyone is ..." - predicate negation: Socrates is not ... "- negation is not parasitic to affirmation - no added meaning - Otherwise there would be a summation with double negation.
Negation/assertion/Geach: propositions can be put forward without asserting them. For example, "p > q" therefore we need a negation which is not polar to the assertion.
Logic Matters Oxford 1972