Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Natural deduction, logic: is a calculus by Gerhard Gentzen (Gentzen, “Untersuchungen über das logische Schließen“. In Mathematische Zeitschrift Band 39, 1935, pp. 176–210, 405–431), which largely manages without axioms and instead works with introductory and eliminating rules for the operators used. Assumptions that are needed in the course of time can be partly eliminated later. See also axiomatization, axiom systems, axioms, inference.
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I 201
natural deduction / quantifier: only certain descriptions, individual constants construed only as abbreviations for certain individual terms, not as a variable.

We I
H. Wessel
Logik Berlin 1999

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-30