|Laws of Nature, philosophy: laws of nature (physical laws) are descriptions of dependencies of physical quantities among each other. From the fact that these are descriptions, it follows that these are no regulations in the sense of e.g. legal regulations. N. Goodman suggests in “Fact, Fiction and Forecast” (1954) that natural laws should be formulated in the form of irreal conditional sentences (also known as counterfactual conditionals); If A were the case, B would have been the case. See also counterfactual conditionals, irreal conditionals, laws, lawlikeness, law statements._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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|Hempel I 98ff
Law of Nature/Wittgenstein: because they cannot be verified completely, they are not statements but only instructions for the formation of statements.
Laws of Nature/causal necessity/Wittgenstein: the laws of nature are not outside the phenomena - they belong to the language and to our description of things - when ones discusses them, one cannot ignore how they manifest themselves physically.
Law of Nature/explanation/Tractatus/Wittgenstein: 6,371 laws of nature are not explanations of natural phenomena - Tractatus 6,372 So they stay with the laws of nature, like the older with God.
Justification/laws of nature/Wittgenstein: laws of nature can be justified, rules of grammar not.
Law of Nature/law/Wittgenstein: 2. Law of Thermodynamics/Wittgenstein: it is not clear a priori that the world continues to lose its order over time. It is a matter of experience.
However, it is not a matter of experience, that it must come to an equal distribution of nuts and raisins, if one whirls them. That something happens with necessity, there is no experience. That one presupposes another > force to explain the separation. (For example, specific weight).
Laws of nature/Hertz/Wittgenstein: Hertz has said where something does not comply with his laws, there must be invisible masses, to explain it.
WittgensteinVsHertz: this statement is neither right nor wrong, but it can be practical or not.
Hypotheses like talking of "invisible masses" and "unconscious mental events" are standards of the expression.
Laws of Nature/Wittgenstein: we believe it has to do with a law of nature a priori while it is a standard of expression:
E.g. So like saying "Actually, everyone is going to Paris,
Although some do not arrive, but all their displacements are preparations for the trip to Paris."
Law of Causality/Law of Nature/Tractatus: 632 the law of causality is not a law but the form of a law.
Causality/form/show/say/Tractatus: 636 if there were a law of causality, it might be: "There are laws of nature". But one cannot say that, it turns out.
Tetens VII 122
Civilization/WittgensteinVsCivilization/WittgensteinVsModernity/Tetens: believes he can explain everything and thinks all important is explained once the facts are scientifically explained in principle.
It is an illusion that the world is explained when we know the laws of nature.
Definition laws of nature/Tractatus/Tetens: are the truth functions of elementary propositions. Therefore, the world as a whole cannot be explained. Neither through logic nor through the laws of nature. The laws of nature also not explain natural phenomena. (> Tractatus 6.317).
The laws of nature are also not the last. That is the logical space, the space of all possible distributions of truth values to the elementary propositions._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Vorlesungen 1930-35 Frankfurt 1989
Das Blaue Buch - Eine Philosophische Betrachtung Frankfurt 1984
Tractatus Logico Philosophicus Frankfurt/M 1960
Geist, Gehirn, Maschine Stuttgart 1994
Tractatus - Ein Kommentar Stuttgart 2009